Philip Bryan                                                                             July 10, 2002



I.     Outline Format vs. Formal Paper

         a.   In many of my classes you will be required to prepare one or more outlined reports for presentation to the class.

         b.   As such, these will not be formal papers, but will have many of the same characteristics of a formal paper.

        c.   Single space

        d.   Small fonts (10 pt or 12 pitch)

        e.   These provisions are designed to cut down on the costs of duplicating your paper for distribution to other students.

        f.    Use tabs — not spaces — when outlining between sections, etc.

        g.   Make your outline detailed enough that the others will not have to make a lot of notes when you present the report orally.

        h.   Number your pages

        i.    Put your name, date, and course number on the top of the page — a separate title page is not required or desired.

        j.    A cover is not required — or desired — these will be put in a notebook.

        k.   If you can punch holes (3 holes) in your paper, it will be easier to put in a notebook.

        l.    Be sure to put some sort of title on your report — e.g., Annotated Bibliography on Periodical Articles Concerning Baptism, 1989-1999.                 


II.    Documentation

        a.   Document everything (either by sections if summarizing or quotations if direct quotation is given).

        b.   Documentation protects you from charges of plagiarism, backs up controversial citations, and provides information for further study — both by yourself and others

        c.   Use an accepted style guide, e.g., Turabian.

        d.   Be thorough, even when summarizing a book or chapter/s from it

        e.   Document internally, not by footnotes or endnotes — this is designed to save you time and energy — with the following example:

              a.  The Inspiration of the Scripture (Thiessen, 35-40).

              b  "The MSS of the KJV are very old" (White, 150).

        f.    Note that only the author's last name is cited, as well as the pages referred to — of course, my citations here are "made up."

        g.   Note that the documentation is placed at the end either of a section or at the end of a quotation and that the period is placed after the closing parenthesis.

        h.   If you refer to more than one book by the same author, come up with some way to differentiate between the two, perhaps with a key word from the title of each to indicate which book is meant.

        i.    Put a complete bibliography at the end of the report, following the proper form for a bibliography, etc. — check the page attached to this paper, as well as the bibliography in the course syllabus, for many examples.

        j.    Remember to use italics instead of underlining when you are referring to book titles, etc., and other types of words where the old style called for underlining — underlining was used formerly, for typewriters did not have the capability of printing in italics.


III.   Length of Paper

        a.   Stay within lengths specified — both minimum & maximum

        b.   You do not want to "go broke" while making copies for the other students and you want to have plenty of time to cover your report, as well as give the other students the same consideration in presenting theirs as they give you.

        c.   This also reveals that you follow directions.


IV.  Simple Grammatical Principles

        a.   Make certain that verbs agree in number, etc.: "He is" — not "He are."

        b.   Make certain that the grammatical number of each pronoun agrees with its antecedent: "Every student needs to study very diligently. He has to [not "they have to"] make sure that he follows directions as he prepares his assignments [not "their assignments"]."


V.    Spelling Errors to Avoid

        a.   Misuse of the word "Baptist" when "Baptists" is meant is a very common error.

        b.   "Baptist" is a singular noun referring to ONE person, or is an adjective as in the expression "Baptist doctrine."

        c.   "Baptists" is a plural noun referring to two or more people, as "The Baptists have grown in number throughout the ages."

        d.   Be careful to spell "separate" correctly and to distinguish between "principle" and "principal."

        e.   "Deity" is the correct spelling (think of "Deus" or "Theos" to remember) and not "Diety."



Footnotes are used by writers to identify the sources of quotations, to acknowledge borrowed material, and to provide supplementary information in texts. They are indicated by superscript numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) placed immediately after the words of passages to be footnoted and following any terminal punctuation without intervening space. The footnotes proper are numerically ordered either at the bottom of each page on which references to them occur or at the end of the complete article, chapter, or book. The first line of a footnote is indented by five character spaces [or the number of spaces that paragraphs are indented], and carried over lines are flush with the left margin. The following typical examples are by no means exhaustive. For further information, readers may wish to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Joseph Gibaldi and Walter S. Achtert (Modern Language Association, 1980), A Manual of Style, 12th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), or A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertation, 6th ed., by Kate L. Turabian (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

Sample Footnotes


        one author

1Edward Crankshaw, Bismarck (New York: The Viking Press, 1981), p. 19.


        two of three authors

2 David M. Robb and J. J. Garrison, Art in the Western World. 4th ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 119.

        more than three authors

3Randolph Quirk, et al., A Grammar of Contemporary English (London: Longman Group Limited, 1979), pp. 231-33.


4Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn. The Gulag Archipelago, trans. Thomas P. Whitney (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), p. 25.


5The State of the Language, ed. Leonard Michaels and Christopher Ricks (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 49.

later edition

6H. L. Mencken. The American Language. 4th ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), p. 81.

translation and edition

7C. G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. trans. Richard and Clara Winston, ed. Aniela Jaffa (New York: Vantage Books, 1963), pp. 373-77.

corporate author

8Report of the Commission on the Humanities (New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1964), p. 120.


9The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 57.

work in a collection

10Lewsi Mumford, "What is a City?" in City and Country in America, ed. David R. Weimer (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962), p. 224.

a volume

11Randolph S. Churchill, Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman 1902-1914, II (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1967), 87-88.


a book in a series

12Charles A. Moser, Antinihilism in the Russian Novel of the 1860's, Slavistic Printings and Reprintings, No. 42, ed. C. H. Van Schooneveld (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964), pp. 24-25.


from a journal paged consecutively throughout its annual volume

13Martin Goldstein, "The Debate in The Brothers Karamazov, " Slavic and East European Journal, 14 (Fall 1970), 326-40.

from a journal paged separately for each of its issues

14R. C. Atkinson and R. M. Shiffrin, "The Control of Short-term Memory," Scientific American, 225, No. 2 (1971), 82-90.

from a monthly magazine

15Russell Lynes, "Usage: Precise and Otherwise," Harper’s, Apr. 1970, p. 32.

from a weekly magazine

16William Safire, "On Language: High Diver," The New York Times Magazine, 21 Feb. 1982, pp. 14, 16.

from a daily newspaper

17Neal Weinberg, "What’s that you didn’t say you meant?" Morning Union [Springfield, Mass.], 4 Jan. 1982, p. 15, cols. 1-4.

from a reference book

18"Rome," The International Geographic Encyclopedia and Atlas (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979).

a signed review

19Rex A. Wade, rev. of Revolutionary Russia, ed. Richard Pipes, Canadian Slavic Studies 3 (Winter 1969), 758-60.

letter to the editor

20Ralph E. Bailey, Letter, National Geographic 161 (March 1982), 272.


A bibliography is an alphabetical list of the works referred to in an article or book. Entries are alphabetized according to the authors’ surnames; if anonymous, the entries are alphabetized by title. Unlike footnotes, bibliographic entries are not preceded by superscript numerals. The first line of each entry is aligned flush with the left margin, and carried over lines are indented by five character spaces [or the number of spaces that paragraphs are indented].

Sample Bibliography

articles from a journal paged separately for each of its issues

Atkinson, R. C., and R. M. Shiffrin. "The Control of Short-term Memory." Scientific American. 225, No. 2 (1971), 82-90.

letter to the editor

Bailey, Ralph E. Letter, National Geographic 161 (1982), 272.

a volume

Churchill, Randolph S. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman 1901-1914. Vol. II. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967.

book, one author

Crankshaw, Edward. Bismarck. New York: Viking, 1981.

article from a journal paged consecutively throughout its annual volume

Goldstein, Martin. "The Debate in The Brothers Karamazov." Slavic and East European Journal 14 (1970), 326-40.

translation and edition

Jung, C. G. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Trans. Richard and Clara Winston. Ed. Aniela Jaffe. New York: Vantage, 1963.

article, in a monthly magazine

Lynes, Russell. "Usage, Precise and Otherwise." Harper’s. Apr. 1970, pp. 32-36.

later edition

Mencken, H. L. The American Language. 4th ed. News York: Knopf, 1980.



Michaels, Leonard, and Christopher Ricks, eds. The State of the Language. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1980.

a book in a series

Moser, Charles A. Antinihilism in the Russian Novel of the 1860's. Slavistic Printings and Reprintings, No. 42. Ed. C. H. Van Schooneveld. The Hague: Mouton, 1964.

a work in a collection

Mumford, Lewis. "What is a City?" In City and Country in America. Ed. David R. Weimer. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962, pp. 224-32.

book, anonymous

The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1979.

book, more than three authors

Quirk, Raldolph, et al. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman, 1979.

book, corporate author

Report of the Commission on the Humanities. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1964.

book, two or three authors

Robb, David M., and J. J. Garrison. Art in the Western World. 4th ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.

article, from a reference book

"Rome," The International Geographic Encyclopedia and Atlas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979.

article, from a weekly magazine

Safire, William. "Oh Language: High Diver." The New York Times Magazine, 21 Feb. 1982, pp. 14, 16.


Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. The Gulag Archipelago. Trans. Thomas P. Whitney. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

a signed review

Wade, Rex A. Rev. of Revolutionary Russia, ed. Richard Pipes. Canadian Slavic Studies 3 (1969), 758-60.

article, from a daily newspaper

Weinberg, Neal. "What’s that you didn’t say you meant?" Morning Union [Springfield, Mass.] 4 Jan. 1982, cols. 1-4.